Basic technical properties of Kriuk antenna:
Kriuk antenna - an inductor in the form of semipseudosphere is resonant antenna, the resonant frequency (the length of the emitted wave) is determined by the inductance of the antenna and its geometric (overall) capacity. The greater the inductance and capacitance of the antenna, the lower the resonant frequency of the antenna and the longer the length of the emitted wave.
Since the surface of the antenna in the form of semipseudosphere it has a negative curvature, and the antenna coil windings have a positive curvature, in each point of the antenna is a "gap" of the electric and magnetic fields of the antenna equivalent to quantization or wave deceleration associated with the antenna. The length is determined by the diameter of the wire of antenna coil antenna and almost has a value in the tens of thousands of times less than the length of the emitted wave. This is the first factor that determines the effectiveness of super-long-wave radiation of the antenna.
Antenna volume on the plane that is orthogonal to the plane of coils is a quarter vibrator. In practice, this size is thousands of times smaller than the length of the emitted wave, which is also equivalent to the quantization of the emitted wave, or its deceleration. This is the second factor determines the effectiveness of super-long-wave radiation of the antenna.
The principle of reciprocity between the emitting and receiving antennas and Kriuk antenna remains, that is, the Kriuk antenna is also effective in the receiver mode.
With a given equal radius volume of pseudosphere is equal to the half volume of sphere. Applying this to Gauss formula, you can create open systems with energy-binding and activation energy of the electromagnetic field of the environment. This is a third factor that generally determines the efficiency of two-channel transmission of energy at very long wavelengths.